Nanomedicine Book Site

© 1996-2022 Robert A. Freitas Jr. All Rights Reserved



Nanomedicine, Volume IIA: Biocompatibility by Robert A. Freitas Jr. is now available in hardcover for $99 + shipping. Click here to purchase the book at or click here for information or to purchase the book directly from Landes Bioscience.

Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities by Robert A. Freitas Jr. is now available in softcover for $89 + shipping. Click here for information or to purchase the book directly from Landes Bioscience.



About Nanomedicine (the field)

Molecular nanotechnology has been defined as the three-dimensional positional control of molecular structure to create materials and devices to molecular precision. The human body is comprised of molecules, hence the availability of molecular nanotechnology will permit dramatic progress in human medical services. More than just an extension of "molecular medicine," nanomedicine will employ molecular machine systems to address medical problems, and will use molecular knowledge to maintain and improve human health at the molecular scale. Nanomedicine will have extraordinary and far-reaching implications for the medical profession, for the definition of disease, for the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions including aging, and ultimately for the improvement and extension of natural human biological structure and function.

"Nanomedicine is the preservation and improvement of human health using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body."



About Nanomedicine (the book series)

Nanomedicine, the technical book series, will be published in four Volumes over the course of several years. This website is the first commercial Internet domain exclusively devoted to nanomedicine and is also the permanent online home of the Nanomedicine book series. Volume I was published by Landes Bioscience in October 1999. Volume IIA was published by Landes Bioscience in October 2003. Volume IIB and Volume III will be published in future years. Visitors are encouraged to employ links to specific subsections of these Volumes in their own books, papers, or online discussions. All local URLs and anchored book links from this website will remain stable.

Landes Bioscience is to be congratulated, not only for the tremendous range and quality of its publications but also for its generous and farsighted embrace of simultaneous web-based publication of the Nanomedicine book series, which will better enable debate on, and the evolution of, this work. By 2002, Landes Bioscience had published more than 700 bioscience and biomedicine books. Unique among technical book publishers, Landes Bioscience is allowing many of its books to be indexed and made freely available online via the Bookshelf database operated by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the National Library of Medicine (NLM), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which also operate the related Medline/PubMed service. Access to a comprehensive compendium of biomedicine and bioscience chapters from the most current books is available for a modest monthly or annual subscription fee via the publisher’s website.

Nanomedicine, Volume I was published by Landes Bioscience in October 1999 while Freitas was a Research Fellow at the Institute for Molecular Manufacturing in Palo Alto, California, an organization that sponsored this work along with the Foresight Institute. This support was much appreciated by the author.

Nanomedicine, Volume IIA, was published by Landes Bioscience in October 2003 while Freitas was a Research Scientist during 2000-2004 at Zyvex Corp., a nanotechnology company headquartered in Richardson, Texas. Zyvex should be applauded for its generous early support of this important work

Freitas is now completing Nanomedicine, Volumes IIB and III and is also consulting on molecular assembler and nanofactory design as Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Molecular Manufacturing.



About Robert Freitas and his Nanomedicine-Related Websites

Information about the author, Robert A. Freitas Jr., is available at the author’s homepage. Nanomedicine-related websites associated with Robert Freitas include the Nanomedicine Book Site, the Nanomedicine Art Gallery, and the Nanomedicine Page. A compilation of technical designs for medical nanorobots, by Freitas, are here. The Nanomedicine Page includes a nontechnical nanomedicine FAQ and hundreds of links to articles, papers, websites, people and organizations who are active in the field of nanomedicine.

The domain is owned and webmastered by Robert A. Freitas Jr. Please report errors at this website, whether typographical or substantive, to him.



Links to the Nanomedicine Book Series online



Nanomedicine, Vol. I: Basic Capabilities (Landes Bioscience, 1999). The first volume of the Nanomedicine book series describes the set of basic capabilities of molecular machine systems that may be required by many, if not most, medical nanorobotic devices, including the physical, chemical, thermodynamic, mechanical, and biological limits of such devices. Specific topics include the abilities to recognize, sort and transport important molecules; sense the environment; alter shape or surface texture; generate onboard energy to power effective robotic functions; communicate with doctors, patients, and other nanorobots; navigate throughout the human body; manipulate microscopic objects and move about inside a human body; and timekeep, perform computations, disable living cells and viruses, and operate at various pressures and temperatures.

Read Entire Text free online ..... Purchase Hardcover online ..... Purchase Softcover online ..... Purchase Softcover online ..... Purchase directly from Landes Bioscience ..... Chapter 3 (early version, Foresight Institute) ..... Japanese Language Version (Cover Only, HTML)

Review by Gregory M Fahy, Ph.D. and here; Review by Lawrence Rosenberg, M.D., Ph.D.; see all Reviews. See note regarding left-handed DNA depicted in cover art.


Nanomedicine, Vol. IIA: Biocompatibility (Landes Bioscience, 2003). The safety, effectiveness, and utility of medical nanorobotic devices will critically depend upon their biocompatibility with human organs, tissues, cells, and biochemical systems. In this second Volume of the Nanomedicine technical book series, we broaden the definition of nanomedical biocompatibility to include all of the mechanical, physiological, immunological, cytological, and biochemical responses of the human body to the introduction of artificial medical nanodevices, whether “particulate” (large doses of independent micron-sized individual nanorobots) or “bulk” (nanorobotic organs assembled either as solid objects or built up from trillions of smaller artificial cells or docked nanorobots inside the body) in form.

Read Text free online ..... Purchase Hardcover online ..... Advance Purchase directly from Landes Bioscience ..... Subscription Version online at (PDF)

See all Reviews


Nanomedicine, Vol. IIB: Systems and Operations (2016-17, in preparation). This Volume will consider systems-level technical requirements in the design and operation of medical nanodevices, including: scaling factors and general design principles; control issues including teleoperation and haptic controllers, swarm motions, autogenous control systems, and various operational protocols; repair, replacement, and reliability; molecular machine system architectures and deployment configurations such as nano-organs, medical utility fogs, and replicators; methods of nanorobotic ingress and egress from the human body; possible nanodevice failure modes, environmental interactions, side effects of nanomedical treatments, nanodevice software bugs and other safety issues; classes of medical nanosystems such as instruments, tools, and diagnostic systems; specific medical nanorobot devices; rapid mechanical reading and editing of chromatin and protein macromolecules; and complex nanorobotic systems for cell repair, tissue and organ manufacturing, and personal defense.


Nanomedicine, Vol. III: Applications (2017-19, in preparation). This Volume will consider the full range of nanomedical applications which employ molecular nanotechnology inside the human body, from the perspective of a future practitioner in an era of widely available nanomedicine, including: rapid cardiovascular repair; treatments for pathogenic disease and cancer; responses to physical traumas, burns and radiation exposures, with new methods of first aid, surgery, and emergency or critical care; neurography, spinal restoration and brain repair; improved nutrition and digestion; sex, reproduction, and population issues; cosmetics, recreation, veterinary and space medicine; strategies for biostasis and the control of aging processes; human augmentation systems; regulatory and sociological issues, implementation timelines, and the future of hospitals, pharmaceutical companies, and the medical profession.



Technical Analyses of Types of Diamondoid Medical Nanorobots

Respirocytes (artificial mechanical red cells; first medical nanorobot design paper ever published)

         Robert A. Freitas Jr., “Exploratory Design in Medical Nanotechnology: A Mechanical Artificial Red Cell,” Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Immobil. Biotech. 26(1998):411-430.


Microbivores (artificial mechanical white cells)

         Robert A. Freitas Jr., “Microbivores: Artificial Mechanical Phagocytes using Digest and Discharge Protocol,” J. Evol. Technol. 14(April 2005):55-106.


Clottocytes (artificial mechanical platelets)

         Robert A. Freitas Jr., “Clottocytes: Artificial Mechanical Platelets,” Foresight Update No. 41, 30 June 2000, pp. 9-11.


Pharmacytes (ideal drug delivery nanorobot)

         Robert A. Freitas Jr., “Pharmacytes: An Ideal Vehicle for Targeted Drug Delivery,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6(September/October 2006):2769-2775.

Dentifrobots (and other dental nanorobots; first cover story on medical nanorobotics ever published in a mainstream medical journal)

         Robert A. Freitas Jr., “Nanodentistry,” J. Amer. Dent. Assoc. 131(November 2000):1559-1566 (cover story).


Vasculoid (complete artificial vasculature)

         Robert A. Freitas Jr., Christopher J. Phoenix, “Vasculoid: A personal nanomedical appliance to replace human blood,” J. Evol. Technol. 11(April 2002):1-139.

Programmable Dermal Display (comprehensive real-time personal medical monitoring system)

         Robert A. Freitas Jr., “Macroscale Outmessaging Transducers,” Nanomedicine, Vol. I. Basic Capabilities, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown TX, 1999, Section, pp. 204-206.

         IMAGES: ..... video narrated by author

Chromallocytes (chromosome exchange therapy; first technical description of a cell repair nanorobot ever published)

         Robert A. Freitas Jr., “The Ideal Gene Delivery Vector: Chromallocytes, Cell Repair Nanorobots for Chromosome Replacement Therapy,” J. Evol. Technol. 16(June 2007):1-97.

         IMAGES: (Cover Art and page 6)

Whiskey Machine (first technical description of a diamondoid nanofactory for making a food product)

         Robert A. Freitas Jr., “The Whiskey Machine: Nanofactory-Based Replication of Fine Spirits and Other Alcohol-Based Beverages,” IMM Report No. 47, May 2016.

Alzheimer Protocols (proposed complete cure for Alzheimer's Disease, involving several new nanorobot classes)

         Robert A. Freitas Jr., “The Alzheimer Protocols: A Nanorobotic Cure for Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Neurodegenerative Conditions,” IMM Report No. 48, June 2016.

Cryostasis Revival (the first comprehensive conceptual protocol for revival from human cryopreservation, using medical nanorobotics)

         Robert A. Freitas Jr., Cryostasis Revival, Alcor Life Extension Foundation, Scottsdale AZ, 2022;



Nanomedicine Book Site homepage last updated on 3 March 2022

since 6 March 2003